There is conflicting data on the effects of long term ketosis and bone mass.  Some studies seem to correlate a loss of bone mass with being in ketosis. On the other hand, there is published research that seems to contradict this:

Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet on body composition and bone mineralization in GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome: a case series.

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The effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on bone turnover.

So obviously, more study is needed.  In the meantime, I decided when formulating Giant Keto to try to mitigate this potential issue as much as possible, if not just outright eliminating it.

So far, in my previous blog posts I discussed some basic information regarding BHB salts, ketosis, Giant Sports Giant Keto Product and the potential benefits the “extra” ingredients found on Giant Keto offer over other BHB salt products.  Today, I want to discuss a few more ingredients that at first glance, might seem rather mundane but were put into Giant Keto as specific doses for some great “preventive” reasons.

First, the most abundant BHB salt in Giant Keto is the calcium salt.  A single serving of Giant Keto provides 1,600mg of Calcium.  This is close to 125% of the US RDA for calcium at the highest RDA level (which is 1,300mg per day, see  So, it is likely that any urinary calcium loss could be offset by this.

Second, each serving of Giant Keto provides you with 5000IU Vitamin D, which is at least 625% of the US RDA for Vitamin D at the highest RDA level (which is 800 IU per day, see  From the same reference, “Vitamin D promotes calcium absorption in the gut and maintains adequate serum calcium and phosphate concentrations to enable normal mineralization of bone.

It is also needed for bone growth and bone remodeling by osteoblasts and osteoclasts.  Without sufficient vitamin D, bones can become thin, brittle, or misshapen. Vitamin D sufficiency prevents rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.  Together with calcium, vitamin D also helps protect older adults from osteoporosis.

vitamin d in a bowl of lemons
Great Source of Vitamin D

Vitamin D has other roles in the body, including modulation of cell growth, neuromuscular and immune function, and reduction of inflammation.  Many genes encoding proteins that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are modulated in part by vitamin D…”.

Vitamin D also preserves lean muscle mass in certain populations, ( and obese people seem to have the lowest Vitamin D levels ( , a substantial subset of folks who undertake ketogenic diets in order to lose copious amounts of body fat.

Third, each serving of Giant Keto provides you with 600mcg of Vitamin K, which is at least 416% of the US RDA for Vitamin D at the highest RDA level (which is 120mcg per day, see . 

From the same reference, “[…] Vitamin K is a co-factor for the gamma-carboxylation of many proteins, including osteocalcin, one of the main proteins in bone. Some research indicates that high serum levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin are associated with lower bone mineral density. Some, but not all, studies also link higher vitamin K intakes with higher bone mineral density and/or lower hip fracture incidence.”

So to wrap up this blog post, adding in high doses of Vitamin D, Vitamin K and in essence, Calcium could possibly prevent any bone demineralization and subsequent bone loss related to being in ketosis for long periods of time.  Healthy bones are the foundation of any successful athlete.  Just ask any athlete sidelined with a bone fracture – you can’t train and you can’t compete with a broken arm or leg.  Why chance it?

– Bruce Kneller, Formulator of Giant Keto